Categories
ScienceDaily

Asymmetry found in spin directions of galaxies

An analysis of more than 200,000 spiral galaxies has revealed unexpected links between spin directions of galaxies, and the structure formed by these links might suggest that the early universe could have been spinning, according to a Kansas State University study.

Lior Shamir, a K-State computational astronomer and computer scientist, presented the findings at the 236th American Astronomical Society meeting in June 2020. The findings are significant because the observations conflict with some previous assumptions about the large-scale structure of the universe.

Since the time of Edwin Hubble, astronomers have believed that the universe is inflating with no particular direction and that the galaxies in it are distributed with no particular cosmological structure. But Shamir’s recent observations of geometrical patterns of more than 200,000 spiral galaxies suggest that the universe could have a defined structure and that the early universe could have been spinning. Patterns in the distribution of these galaxies suggest that spiral galaxies in different parts of the universe, separated by both space and time, are related through the directions toward which they spin, according to the study.

“Data science in astronomy has not just made astronomy research more cost-effective, but it also allows us to observe the universe in a completely different way,” said Shamir, also a K-State associate professor of computer science. “The geometrical pattern exhibited by the distribution of the spiral galaxies is clear, but can only be observed when analyzing a very large number of astronomical objects.”

A spiral galaxy is a unique astronomical object because its visual appearance depends on the observer’s perspective. For instance, a spiral galaxy that spins clockwise when observed from Earth, would seem to spin counterclockwise when the observer is located in the opposite side of that galaxy. If the universe is isotropic and has no particular structure — as previous astronomers have predicted — the number of galaxies that spin clockwise would be roughly equal to the number of galaxies that spin counterclockwise. Shamir used data from modern telescopes to show that this is not the case.

With traditional telescopes, counting galaxies in the universe is a daunting task. But modern robotic telescopes such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, or SDSS, and the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System, or Pan-STARRS, are able to image many millions of galaxies automatically as they survey the sky. Machine vision can then sort millions of galaxies by their spin direction far faster than any person or group of people.

When comparing the number of galaxies with different spin directions, the number of galaxies that spin clockwise is not equal to the number of galaxies that spin counterclockwise. The difference is small, just over 2%, but with the high number of galaxies, there is a probability of less than 1 to 4 billion to have such asymmetry by chance, according to Shamir’s research.

The patterns span over more than 4 billion light-years, but the asymmetry in that range is not uniform. The study found that the asymmetry gets higher when the galaxies are more distant from Earth, which shows that the early universe was more consistent and less chaotic than the current universe.

But the patterns do not just show that the universe is not symmetric, but also that the asymmetry changes in different parts of the universe, and the differences exhibit a unique pattern of multipoles.

“If the universe has an axis, it is not a simple single axis like a merry-go-round,” Shamir said. “It is a complex alignment of multiple axes that also have a certain drift.”

The concept of cosmological multipoles is not new. Previous space-based observatories — such as the Cosmic Background Explorer, or COBE, satellite; the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, or WMAP mission; and the Planck observatory — showed that the cosmic microwave background, which is electromagnetic radiation from the very early universe, also exhibits multiple poles. But the measurement of the cosmic microwave background is sensitive to foreground contamination — such as the obstruction of the Milky Way — and cannot show how these poles changed over time. The asymmetry between spin directions of spiral galaxies is a measurement that is not sensitive to obstruction. What can obstruct galaxies spinning in one direction in a certain field will necessarily also obstruct galaxies spinning in the opposite way.

“There is no error or contamination that could exhibit itself through such unique, complex and consistent patterns,” Shamir said. “We have two different sky surveys showing the exact same patterns, even when the galaxies are completely different. There is no error that can lead to that. This is the universe that we live in. This is our home.”

Go to Source
Author:

Categories
DCED

Wolf Administration: New Robotics, Automated Technology Training Opportunities in Montgomery County – PA Department of Community & Economic Development

Harrisburg, PA – Today, Governor Tom Wolf announced the approval of $200,000 in new funding for the Eastern Center for Arts and Technology’s (ECAT) Robotics and Automated Technology program to expand their Advanced Manufacturing offerings. The funding will build on the governor’s commitment to expanding job training opportunities in Pennsylvania.

“As the manufacturing industry in Pennsylvania continues to evolve and advance, it’s invaluable when organizations like ECAT act responsively to expand the education they offer to support the industry’s needs,” said Gov. Wolf. “My administration is proud to back programs like this that make opportunities accessible to a vast age range and assist students through the process of attaining internships—preparing individuals across-the-board for career placement and success.”

The grant will allow ECAT to invest in necessary equipment and building renovations, as well as cover costs related to curriculum development, student-paid internships, and instructor salaries. ECAT’s Robotics and Automated Technology program will serve individuals from middle-school age through adult learners, offering career exploration tours, half-day enrollment, and evening continuing education classes. The program will be available to 40 secondary students and 50 adult students and aims to connect at least 20 secondary students with paid internships each year.

“Robotics and automation have infiltrated a myriad of industries, from medical to manufacturing. This program creates multiple pathways for students including direct employment as technicians, assemblers, and programmers, and further education in a variety of engineering majors,” said EASTERN Executive Director Cathleen Plesnarski. “The grant awarded by the Department of Community and Economic Development will help Eastern Center for Arts and Technology collaborate with local employers and colleges to plan and implement this important training to students and adults, and to help connect these learners to paid internships by incentivizing employer participation.

ECAT offers high-quality, continuously evaluated and updated technical instruction, leadership opportunities, and specialized services, responding to the needs of students, business, and industry to provide students with an environment where they can make career decisions, acquire competitive skills, and prepare themselves for success in higher education.

Governor Wolf’s Manufacturing PA initiative was launched in October 2017, and since then has funded 35 projects and invested more than $9 million through the Training-to-Career program. Training-to-Career grants support projects that result in short-term work-readiness, job placement, or the advancement of manufacturing. The Manufacturing PA Training-to-Career program works collaboratively with local manufacturers to identify and teach missing essential skills for entry level applicants seeking manufacturing employment, engage youth or those with barriers to career opportunities in manufacturing, and or advance capacity for local or regional manufacturers.

For more information about Wolf Administration’s commitment to workforce training, visit the DCED website, and be sure to stay up-to-date with all of our agency news on Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn.

MEDIA CONTACT:

Casey Smith, DCED, [email protected]

# # #


Go to Source
Author: Marketing451

Categories
DCED

Governor Wolf Announces New Manufacturing Apprenticeship Opportunities in Bucks County – PA Department of Community & Economic Development

Harrisburg, PA – Today, Governor Tom Wolf announced the approval of $200,000 in new funding for Bucks County Community College’s (BCCC) apprenticeship program. The funding will build on the governor’s commitment to expanding job training opportunities in Pennsylvania.

“This funding will enable Bucks County Community College to offer fully-encompassed training to individuals looking for good-paying jobs,” said Gov. Wolf. “By supporting apprenticeship programs, we’re strengthening Pennsylvania’s workforce and helping manufacturing companies secure fully-trained, long-term workers.”

The funding will assist with the training of students for the Metalwork Pre-Apprenticeship Training Program through the creation of an awareness campaign to increase recruitment for all BCCC Manufacturing Pre-Apprenticeship Training Programs. BCCC will run a campaign to educate Bucks County residents about the free, 12-week, Pre-Apprenticeship Training Program that upskills and retains unemployed and underemployed individuals, many of whom may face barriers to employment as identified by the Workforce Investment Opportunity Act (WIOA). The training also includes soft skills training, job shadowing opportunities, and individualized job placement assistance with partnering manufacturing employers. After finishing the Metalwork Pre-Apprenticeship Training Program, apprentices have completed 288 hours of training and received certifications in OSHA10, forklift safety, National Institute for Metalworking Skills (NMS), Certification Exam for Measurement, Materials, and Safety Level I.

“We are thrilled to receive this funding, and we are thankful to Governor Wolf and the Department of Community and Economic Development for committing resources to the workforce needs in our community,” said Executive Director of the Center for Workforce Development at Bucks County Community College Susan Herring. “The Training to Career Grant will allow us to make students, parents, and job seekers aware of these free training programs which provide life-changing opportunities and high-paying careers in manufacturing.”

Apprenticeships are a key component of Governor Wolf’s PAsmart initiative, an innovative way to improve coordination between state agencies, cut red tape, and invest in people and businesses to expand innovative job training in apprenticeships and other programs so workers get the skills they need to compete in the global economy.

Governor Wolf’s Manufacturing PA initiative was launched in October 2017, and since then has funded 35 projects and invested more than $9 million through the Training-to-Career program. Training-to-Career grants support projects that result in short-term work-readiness, job placement, or the advancement of manufacturing. The Manufacturing PA Training-to-Career program works collaboratively with local manufacturers to identify and teach missing essential skills for entry level applicants seeking manufacturing employment, engage youth or those with barriers to career opportunities in manufacturing, and advance capacity for local or regional manufacturers.

For more information about the Wolf Administration’s commitment to workforce training or DCED, visit the DCED website, and be sure to stay up-to-date with all of our agency news on Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn.

MEDIA CONTACTS:

J.J. Abbott, Governor’s Office, 717.783.1116

Casey Smith, DCED, 717.783.1132

# # #


Go to Source
Author: Marketing451