Categories
ProgrammableWeb

AND Announces the Launch of an Updated GeoBondaries API

This article is a company-provided press release and although ProgrammableWeb may have edited it, it cannot vouch for the accuracy of the statements within. If you have questions regarding the information below, please contact the company that issued the press release.

Go to Source
Author: <a href="https://www.programmableweb.com/user/%5Buid%5D">ProgrammableWeb PR</a>

Categories
ScienceDaily

Virtual imaging trials optimize CT, radiography for COVID-19

An open-access article in ARRS’ American Journal of Roentgenology (AJR) established a foundation for the use of virtual imaging trials in effective assessment and optimization of CT and radiography acquisitions and analysis tools to help manage the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic.

Virtual imaging trials have two main components–representative models of targeted subjects and realistic models of imaging scanners–and the authors of this AJR article developed the first computational models of patients with COVID-19, while showing, as proof of principle, how they can be combined with imaging simulators for COVID-19 imaging studies.

“For the body habitus of the models,” lead author Ehsan Abadi explained, “we used the 4D extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) model that was developed at Duke University.”

Abadi and his Duke colleagues then segmented the morphologic features of COVID-19 abnormalities from 20 CT images of patients with multidiagnostic confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 infection and incorporated them into XCAT models.

“Within a given disease area, the texture and material of the lung parenchyma in the XCAT were modified to match the properties observed in the clinical images,” Abadi et al. continued.

Using a specific CT scanner (Definition Flash, Siemens Healthineers) and validated radiography simulator (DukeSim) to help illustrate utility, the team virtually imaged three developed COVID-19 computational phantoms.

“Subjectively,” the authors concluded, “the simulated abnormalities were realistic in terms of shape and texture,” adding their preliminary results showed that the contrast-to-noise ratios in the abnormal regions were 1.6, 3.0, and 3.6 for 5-, 25-, and 50-mAs images, respectively.

 

 

Story Source:

Materials provided by American Roentgen Ray Society. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Go to Source
Author:

Categories
ScienceDaily

Aerogel: the micro structural material of the future

Behind the simple headline “Additive manufacturing of silica aerogels” — the article was published on July 20th in the scientific journal Nature — a groundbreaking development is hidden. Silica aerogels are light, porous foams that provide excellent thermal insulation. In practice, they are also known for their brittle behaviour, which is why they are usually reinforced with fibres or with organic or biopolymers for large-scale applications. Due to their brittle fracture behaviour, it is also not possible to saw or mill small pieces out of a larger aerogel block. Directly solidifying the gel in miniaturised moulds is also not reliably — which results in high scrap rates. This is why aerogels have hardly been usable for small-scale applications.

Stable, well-formed microstructures

The Empa team led by Shanyu Zhao, Gilberto Siqueira, Wim Malfait and Matthias Koebel have now succeeded in producing stable, well-shaped microstructures from silica aerogel by using a 3D printer. The printed structures can be as thin as a tenth of a millimeter. The thermal conductivity of the silica aerogel is just under 16 mW/(m*K) — only half that of polystyrene and even significantly less than that of a non-moving layer of air, 26 mW/(m*K). At the same time, the novel printed silica aerogel has even better mechanical properties and can even be drilled and milled. This opens up completely new possibilities for the post-processing of 3D printed aerogel mouldings.

With the method, for which a patent application has now been filed, it is possible to precisely adjust the flow and solidification properties of the silica ink from which the aerogel is later produced, so that both self-supporting structures and wafer-thin membranes can be printed. As an example of overhanging structures, the researchers printed leaves and blossoms of a lotus flower. The test object floats on the water surface due to the hydrophobic properties and low density of the silica aerogel — just like its natural model. The new technology also makes it possible for the first time to print complex 3D multi-material microstructures.

Insulation materials for microtechnology and medicine

With such structures it is now comparatively trivial to thermally insulate even the smallest electronic components from each other. The researchers were able to demonstrate the thermal shielding of a temperature-sensitive component and the thermal management of a local “hot spot” in an impressive way. Another possible application is the shielding of heat sources inside medical implants, which should not exceed a surface temperature of 37 degrees in order to protect body tissue.

A functional aerogel membrane

3D printing allows multilayer/multi-material combinations to be produced much more reliably and reproducibly. Novel aerogel fine structures become feasible and open up new technical solutions, as a second application example shows: Using a printed aerogel membrane, the researchers constructed a “thermos-molecular” gas pump. This permeation pump manages without any moving parts at all and is also known to the technical community as a Knudsen pump, named after the Danish physicist Martin Knudsen. The principle of operation is based on the restricted gas transport in a network of nanoscale pores or one-dimensional channels of which the walls are hot at one end and cold at the other. The team built such a pump from aerogel, which was doped on one side with black manganese oxide nanoparticles. When this pump is placed under a light source, it becomes warm on the dark side and starts to pump gases or solvent vapours.

Air purification without moving parts

These applications show the possibilities of 3D printing in an impressive way: 3D printing turns the high-performance material aerogel into a construction material for functional membranes that can be quickly modified to suit a wide range of applications. The Knudsen pump, which is driven solely by sunlight, can do more than just pump: If the air is contaminated with a pollutant or an environmental toxin such as the solvent toluene, the air can circulate through the membrane several times and the pollutant is chemically broken down by a reaction catalyzed by the manganese oxide nanoparticles. Such sun-powered, autocatalytic solutions are particularly appealing in the field of air analysis and purification on a very small scale because of their simplicity and durability.

Empa researchers are now looking for industrial partners who want to integrate 3D-printed aerogel structures into new high-tech applications.

Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yl8yz28xQbw&feature=emb_logo

Story Source:

Materials provided by Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (EMPA). Original written by Rainer Klose. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Go to Source
Author:

Categories
ProgrammableWeb

Infotech Launches API for its E-Ticketing Services

This article is a company-provided press release and although ProgrammableWeb may have edited it, it cannot vouch for the accuracy of the statements within. If you have questions regarding the information below, please contact the company that issued the press release.

Go to Source
Author: <a href="https://www.programmableweb.com/user/%5Buid%5D">ProgrammableWeb PR</a>

Categories
ProgrammableWeb

E*TRADE Announces Developer Platform for Tailored API Creation

This article is a company-provided press release and although ProgrammableWeb may have edited it, it cannot vouch for the accuracy of the statements within. If you have questions regarding the information below, please contact the company that issued the press release.

Go to Source
Author: <a href="https://www.programmableweb.com/user/%5Buid%5D">ProgrammableWeb PR</a>

Categories
ProgrammableWeb

BitLaunch Releases New API and Command-Line Tool

This article is a company-provided press release and although ProgrammableWeb may have edited it, it cannot vouch for the accuracy of the statements within. If you have questions regarding the information below, please contact the company that issued the press release.

Go to Source
Author: <a href="https://www.programmableweb.com/user/%5Buid%5D">ProgrammableWeb PR</a>

Categories
ProgrammableWeb

Discussing the Fundamentals of JSON

This article outlines the definition and essential purpose of JSON (JavaScript Object Notation). To set up the definition of JSON, a few key terms will be clarified.

In software development, a coding standard is used to give a uniform appearance, and lay out a specific set of use guidelines and best practices. There are a variety of these standards in use today: JSON is one. 

A key-value pair (KVP) is a set of two linked data items. The “key” is a unique identifier for an item of data. The “value” will be either the data that is identified, or a pointer to the location of that data: both are a fundamental data representation. A key and a value create the pair.

The JSON standard is a data format used to organize data via key-value pairing, a format suited machine computing. An article  from Daily Coding Info ranks JSON as the most used method of communication for web APIs, outpacing XML, CSV, and HTML. Daily Coding Info has presented a hypothetical use case for a JSON API in this article. The article presents a quick explanation of the format is included with the code: 

“A “key-value” pairing in JSON is a format which consists of a left hand side, a colon, and a right hand side. The side left of the colon is the “key” and the side right of the colon is the “value”. The left hand side, or the “key”, is used to describe something about the right hand side, for example the “key-value” pairing…The braces in JSON denote an “object”, an “object” is a collection of data inside JSON, starting with an open brace { and ending with a closing brace }.”

A fundamental function of the braces is to serve as an unchangeable container – the form of the container may change, but the function remains consistent in each use. 

JSON has 6 specific types of data. Four of the types are “simple”  (Strings, Numbers, Boolean, and Null), two types are “complex” (Objects, and Arrays). Here are quick definitions of these types:

string data – a sequence of characters surrounded by quotes, useful when compiling data legible to humans. Examples: 

“color” : “Purple”
“virus” : “active”
“genus” : “rosa”

number data – quoted numbers represented in base 10 (the decimal system), with exponents represented with an “E.” Examples: 

{
  “number_1” : 350,
  “number_2” : -350,
  “number_3” : 350.05,
  “number_4” : 3.0E+5
}

boolean – values which are “true” or “false.” Example:

{
  “purple” : true
}

null – used to denote “nothing” or “void.” Example: 

{
  “purple” : true,
  “green” : ,      //empty
  “id” : 350
}

object – name/value pairs used in lists of “things,” where the list is an unordered set of name/value pairs, in which the objects are (1) placed between {} (curly braces), (2) the objects contain zero or more name/value pairs, and (3) multiple name/value pairs are separated by a , (comma). Example: 

{
  “purple” : true,
  “genus” : “rosa”,
  “id” : 350
}

array – name/value pairs used in lists of “things,” where the list is an ordered set of name/value pairs, in which the objects (1) begin with [ (left bracket) and ends with ] (right bracket) and (2) values are separated by , (comma). Example: 

{
  “ids” : [“1″,”2″,”3”]
}
 
//or
 
{
  “ids” : [
        {“id” : 1},
        {“id” : 2},
        {“id” : 3}
  ]
}

These basic tenets make up the bulk of what is needed to understand JSON. Per the article from Daily Coding Info, “the concept of a “key-value” store and that “values” can have different “types” that’s 90% of JSON.” The final keystone of these tenets is understanding that JSON doesn’t have a formal structure, meaning that the key-values can be ordered to individual preferences. Examples: 

A JSON object can be added inside of another JSON object

{
  “rose_garden_name”: “turnip the volume”,
  “rose_garden_details”: {
    “rose_color”: “purple”,
    “rose_count”: 50,
    “rose_bushes”: 350,
    “do_roses_have_thorns”: true,
    “flowering_rose_bush_ids”: [1, 2, 3], 
    “dormant_rose_bushes”: null,
    “by_another_name”: {}
  }
}

JSON objects can be added inside of JSON arrays

{
  “rose_garden”: [
    “turnip_the_volume”, 
    “rose_daisy”, 
    “the blooming rose”,
    {
      “another_formal_garden_name”: “daisy_shrub”
    }
  ]
}

JSON arrays can be added inside of JSON arrays

{
  “rose_garden”: [
    “turnip_the_volume”, 
    “rose_daisy”, 
    “the blooming rose”,
    [ “the_hillside_cottage_rose_garden”, “coastal_farming_collective”, “modern_mulching_regulations” ]
  ]
}

The ways to structure data in JSON are limitless, as long as they adhere to the use of a key and a value which is a valid JSON type of: Number, String, Boolean, Null, JSON object, Array. 

Go to Source
Author: <a href="https://www.programmableweb.com/user/%5Buid%5D">Katherine-Harrison-Adcock</a>

Categories
ProgrammableWeb

NXTsoft Launches OmniSecure for API Monitoring

This article is a company-provided press release and although ProgrammableWeb may have edited it, it cannot vouch for the accuracy of the statements within. If you have questions regarding the information below, please contact the company that issued the press release.

Go to Source
Author: <a href="https://www.programmableweb.com/user/%5Buid%5D">ProgrammableWeb PR</a>

Categories
ProgrammableWeb

PowerReviews Announces API Updates Including Improved Documentation

This article is a company-provided press release and although ProgrammableWeb may have edited it, it cannot vouch for the accuracy of the statements within. If you have questions regarding the information below, please contact the company that issued the press release.

Go to Source
Author: <a href="https://www.programmableweb.com/user/%5Buid%5D">ProgrammableWeb PR</a>

Categories
ScienceDaily

A century of misunderstanding of a key tool in the economics of natural resources

In an article written in 1931, the American economist and mathematician Harold Hotelling published a model to describe the evolution of the prices of non-renewable resources. Following the 1973 oil crisis, the model aroused fresh interest: the growth theorist Robert Solow named the initial equation in this article ‘the Hotelling rule’, establishing it as a fundamental principle of the economics of non-renewable resources. However, the prices observed over the past century have never been in line with this equation*, something which has constantly puzzled economists.

Despite everything, the Hotelling rule still retains its central status in the economics of mineral and energy resources: it is on this basis that more sophisticated ‘extensions’ are constructed to account for market realities. Roberto Ferreira da Cunha, from the Berkeley Research Group (Brazil), and Antoine Missemer, a CNRS researcher attached to CIRED, the International Centre for Research on Environment and Development (CNRS/CIRAD/AgroParisTech/Ecole des Ponts ParisTech/EHESS), undertook a detailed and unprecedented examination of Harold Hotelling’s archives**. By analysing the origins of the model, they conclude that its scope of validity is more limited t han commonly established, and decisively clarify the reasons for its empirical weaknesses.

Hotelling’s drafts, as well as his correspondence, with oil engineers for example, point to a reinterpretation of the 1931 article. It turns out that the ‘rule’, which he had devised as early as 1924 for abstract assets, was in no way intended to be applied to the concrete case of mineral and energy resources. From 1925 to 1930, Hotelling himself identified unavoidable geological constraints that changed his initial result: increased production costs as extraction progresses, or the cost resulting from ramped up production. As he outlined, this transformed his model, which was then potentially able to describe bell-shaped production paths, such as those used in debates about peak oil.

The two researchers thus show that, if the Hotelling rule has such difficulty in passing the hurdle of empirical tests in the field of energy and mineral resources, it is because it was not designed for that! They propose to reconstruct the models used in this area, taking as a starting point an alternative Hotelling rule that is more in line with geological realities. More generally, their study questions the theoretical instruments used to address energy and environmental issues today. History, and in this case the history of economic thought, can help to take a fresh look at tools that, although considered well established, still deserve to be questioned.

This work was carried out as part of the project Bifurcations in Natural Resource Economics (1920s-1930s), funded by the European Society for the History of Economic Thought (ESHET).

*- The equation states that, in a competitive situation, the price of such resources increases over time at the interest rate observed in the economy.

**- Thousands of pages, contained in 58 archive boxes, stored at Columbia University, New York. 20 to 30 documents taken from various files were identified and then used by the two researchers for their analysis.

Story Source:

Materials provided by CNRS. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Go to Source
Author: